πŸ” Ubuntu Server Security Tips

May 31, 2021 β—¦ β—¦ 3 min read

While Ubuntu is generally secure, there are additional steps that need to be taken to ensure you are putting up a decent fight against exploits.

Prerequisites

To follow along with this guide, you’ll need:

  • A Remote Development Server (to make your own, check out our article)

Setting up a Basic Firewall

Ubuntu includes a firewall service called UFW (Uncomplicated FireWall) to make sure only specified connections to certain applications are allowed. This helps prevent vulnerabilities and outside attacks.

Before we enable the firewall, we need to allow the SSH application through the firewall:

sudo ufw allow OpenSSH

Now, we can enable the firewall:

sudo ufw enable

To check that the firewall is up and running, type:

sudo ufw status

The output should appear as the following:

Output
Status: active

To                         Action      From
--                         ------      ----
OpenSSH                    ALLOW       Anywhere
OpenSSH (v6)               ALLOW       Anywhere

Close your current terminal and login to your server using the newly created user:

ssh example@server_ip

Change Default SSH Port

It’s recommended to change the SSH Port from the default port of 22 as it is a common attack vector for brute force attacks. We’ll use 2222 here but the more random, the more it will significantly reduce the number of brute-force attacks on the server.

Firstly, allow the port you have selected through the firewall:

sudo ufw allow 2222/tcp

Run the following the command to open the SSH Configuration file:

sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Uncomment the following line by removing the hash symbol and update the port number:

#Port 22

Update it to look like the following:

Port 2222

Press CTRL + S to save the file, then press CTRL + X to exit the file.

Restart the SSH server:

systemctl restart sshd

Install and Configure Fail2Ban

Fail2Ban is a intrusion prevention software that stops brute-force attacks on your server. It’s highly recommend that you install this on your server especially if you are using a cloud based service.

Run the following command to install Fail2Ban

sudo apt install fail2ban

Start Fail2Ban and ensure that it starts on boot:

bash systemctl start fail2ban systemctl enable fail2ban

Confirm that Fail2Ban is running and check its active jails with the following command:

```bash
fail2ban-client status

The output should appear as the following:

Status
|- Number of jail: 1
`- Jail list: sshd

You have successfully installed and configured Fail2Ban on your server.

Conclusion

If you have any questions or think I could have taken a better approach, let me know! Feel free to reach out in the comments below or reach out to me via email.


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Hi! πŸ‘‹ I'm Zacchary. I'm a self-taught Web Developer based out of Brisbane, Australia.